Csaba Csaki - Csaba Forgacs - Dominika Milczarek-Andrzejewska - Jerzy Wilkin : Restructuring Market Relations in Food and Agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe:

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Preface

With regard to equity and poverty reduction small farm are preferred to large. Are small farms being marginalized on agricultural markets as new supply chains becoming dominant? This is the key question of Regoverning Markets Project (RM) which started in 2005. The Project initiated and sponsored a broad set of research activities and professional dialogues covering all the six continents of the world. Central and Eastern Europe /CEE/ was one of the regions covered by the Project. The RM activities in the CEE countries were coordinated by the Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development at Corvinus University of Buda­pest Hungary and were conducted in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Russia. The regional outcomes of the project were presented and discussed at a regional seminar on November 7–8, Warsaw, Poland. This volume includes the materials presented at this seminar including an overview of the overall project objectives and initial findings.
The transition to market economies and changes in the political system have made significant impacts upon the various components of the food chain and related market relations in the region. Privatization in agriculture and food processing in the first half of the 1990s has been followed by a revolution in the retail sector created by the entry of multinational trading companies and opening of super and hyper markets in late 1990s and in recent years. Markets and market relations have been in constant change and the process is still continuing. Developments have not been uniform across the region. The new EU member states are far more advanced than Eastern Europe and the Balkan and especially some segments of the CIS. There is however, uniform concern on how these changes impact upon the small farmers and what kind of measures can be recommended to facilitate the adjustment of these farms to the evolving new market relations.
As the findings of the RM indicate the answer is not straight forward to the core question of the project. The situation is different in various regions but there is evidence that under the traditional operational patterns of small scale agriculture there is a growing evidence of exclusion. On the restructured markets small farms are quickly loosing their traditional efficiency advantages due to increased transaction costs to participate in the markets. In fast growing economies small farmers might find other opportunities for income earning than agriculture. In most of the transition countries however there are many reasons to be concerned about small farmers and the social implications of changing agricultural market patterns.
The Central and East European region similarly to the world is diverse. The threat toward small farmers is uniform but it is manifested in many different forms under different conditions. One of the major outcomes of Regoverning Markets is providing reach comparable empirical evidence of the small farmers adjustment to restructured markets instead of anecdotal stories. The project has confirmed the threats as well as brought up a large variety of approaches on the successful responses to the new situation. There are many examples of successful adaptations as presented in this volume. They are however hardly uniform and do not cover all the small farmers.
One essential factor of adjustment is the existence of conducive overall policy and institutional environment. First of all the macro economy has to be stable and public goods –rural roads, education, health care and agricultural extension are guaranteed on an acceptable level. The project findings /see Poland study/ underlines the importance of good governance, ensuring the rule of law in the countryside, the transparency of public interventions and dispute resolution. It is essential, however, that policy makers are aware of specific difficulties of the small farmers and understand that targeted actions are also needed to facilitate the adjustment of small farmers to changing markets. Successful intervention in the interest of small farms requires that governments have an interest mobilizing the support needed and the capacity to do so. The private sector generally has interest and resources to get involved. The public sector however has a crucial role to provide direction, coordination and specific funds to get started.
Many problems of small farmers are rooted in the small farmers themselves. Accordingly the small farmers understanding and willingness to change are also crucial components of the problem. Some of them are conservative and reject innovation and change, others just do not know what to do. The public sector, the private companies, NGOs and farmers associations together have to create the knowledge base and incentive for change. Key element of the change is the cooperation among small farmers. It seems to be a general conclusion that a higher degree of cooperation among the small farmers and other players in the product chains is essential for moving forward.
There is long and cumbersome history of small scale agriculture development in most of the countries of the region. Markets, even much liberalized often fail in rural areas, the private sector behaves in a distorted fashion and, the traditional approach of the public sector leads to failures in a rural environment. RM project indicates that innovation, a major change in the traditional behaviour along the whole product chain is needed both in approaches and institutions to support small farmers in the changing market environment. The project resulted in a number of concrete examples of successful adjustment among different conditions and environment. A detailed country study from Poland and other cases from the region are presented in this volume. The main findings and directions of these cases and the related policy conclusions represent the major outcomes of Regoverning Markets Project   in CEE.

Csaba Csaki
Csaba Forgacs

CEE Regional Coordinators 
Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary


5000 Ft,-

Tartalomjegyzék

Contents

Preface     
Part One: OVERALL FRAMEWORK   
1. SMALL-SCALE PRODUCER IN MODERN AGRIFOOD MARKETS        
Empirical studies        
Innovation and good practice    
Policy outreach and learning    
Emerging findings    
    The extent of market restructuring   
    The role of producer organizations and collective action    
    The role of intermediaries    
    Finance     
    An enabling public policy    
    A responsive private sector   
    Policy processes for chain-wide learning    
    The role of external support    
Implications

2. OBSERVATIONS ON REGIONAL LEVEL    
Evolving components of vertical relations in food and
agriculture       
    Primary agriculture: emergence of millions of smallholders   
    Food processing industry: Privatization – Modernization –
        Increased competitiveness   
    Retail sector – revolutionary changes   
    The intermediary trading system-quick adjustment   
Small farmers in the changing markets   
Policy issues       
    Government policies influencing vertical chains   
    Government policies to facilitate small farmers adjustment   
References        
Part Two: COUNTRY STUDY   
RE-GOVERNING DAIRY SECTOR IN POLAND    
Introduction     . . . . .   
Restructuring of the dairy sector and food market in Poland
    The role of agricultural economy   
    Characteristics of milk production and processing industry   
        Milk production   
        Dairy processing segment   
        Market regulations   
    Overall national food market restructuring   
Methodology of the research   
    Selection of study sites   
    Methods of qualitative survey   
    Methodology of quantitative survey    
The results of the qualitative study   
    Restructuring of downstream segments in the supply chain        
        Processing segment    
            Barriers for the processing segment   
            Structure of sale in large and small dairy processing companies
            Logistics       
        Wholesale segment   
            Decreasing profitability and a change of wholesalers strategies
            Wholesale segment as an important intermediary for local
                chains and independent shops   
            Wholesalers also prefer large suppliers    
        Retail segment   
            Growth of large retail chains from regional perspective   
            Quality improvement and increased demand for dairy products   
        Power relationship in downstream segments   
            Consumer preferences   
            Contracts       
    Changes in production and marketing at farm level   
        Production trends   
            Milk specialization   
            Increase in herd size and production   
            Polarisation   
            Alternatives for those who quitted milk production   
        Production services (input service)   
            Investment opportunities   
            Input use        
        Production constraints – Quota system and access to land as
            main barriers to grow   
        Marketing channels   
            All milk delivered to dairies   
            Deliveries to dairy, three channels   
        Marketing incentives   
            Special premiums regardless to the choice of marketing channel
            Premiums encouraging farmers to shift to direct collection
                   from the farm    
            Dairy assistance to farmers   
        Market institutions and marketing infrastructure   
            Actors on the market        
            Sales opportunities for larger producers improved   
            Milk deliveries    
            Cooperation between farmers   
        Marketing constraints – Difficulties with changing purchaser   
        Power relationships in upstream segments of the supply chain   
Results of the quantitative study    
    Production and marketing – descriptive analysis   
        Labour, human capital and gender characteristics   
        Production, organizational and managerial characteristics    
        Marketing       
        Impacts of market choice   
    Econometric models and estimation    
    Results of the econometric estimation    
        Determinants of market channel choice   
        Determinants of farm revenues   
        The main findings    
        Policy Recommendations 
 
References           
Annexes           
Part Three: CASES
       
1. INCENTIVE STRUCTURE IN PUBLIC POLICIES – EXAMPLE OF THE LAW ON PRODUCER GROUPS IN POLAND       
The situation before the policy innovation   
The key champions leading the policy innovation   
A description of the policy   
The situation after the policy innovation   
An indicative assessment of the costs and benefits of the
    policy innovation   
Enabling conditions under which the innovation might
    be replicated       
References       

2. INCLUSION OF SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMS IN SUPPLY CHAIN IN BULGARIA (A CASE FROM PLOVDIV REGION)   
Introduction   
Background and situation before innovation   
Content of business innovation    
    Starting up and developing a modern dairy processing enterprise
            for locally produced milk   
    Installing milk collecting, cooling, and controlling facilities in the
          neighborhood to small-scale farms and within groups of farms
            and bigger farms   
    Modernizing milk supply and processing quality according to the
             top industry standards and EU requirements   
    Building an effective system for governing relations with individ  ual farmers    
    Setting up company mark and label, and building reputation for
            high quality and authentic origin products   
    Introducing a great variety of specific, original and locally
        produced  dairy products in a big selection of packages into
        regional, national, and international markets   
Evidence of inclusion of small-scale producers   
Drivers and changes of inclusion    
Cost, benefits, and sustainability of inclusion    
Up-scaling and replication of model    
References   
Annexes       

3. MÓRAKERT COOPERATIVE: A SUCCESSFUL CASE OF LINKING SMALL FARMERS TO MARKETS FOR HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE   
Introduction   
The supply chain of the Hungarian horticultural sector   
    The vegetable sector within Hungarian agriculture   
    The processing sector   
    The retail sector   
    Consumption   
    Price transmission analysis in the Hungarian vegetable sector   
    Price competitiveness of selected vegetable products and potatoes
    Regulation of the fruit and vegetable sector in the EU and
        Hungary,  especially regarding producers’ organizations   
The development of Mórakert Cooperative   
    The innovation        
    The market and its supply chain    
    Forms of inclusion   
Empirical analysis of the questionnaire   
    Reasons for the choice of cooperative   
    The share of the cooperative   
Conclusions   
References   

4. AVIUM AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVE AND AVIUM 2000 POULTRY PROCESSING
CO-OPERATIVE SUCCESSFUL CO-OPERATIVES IN THE HUNGARIAN POULTRY SECTOR   

Background   
Literature review   
Methods   
Results and Discussion   
    Innovation: history and operation of the AVIUM and AVIUM
        2000 co-operatives   
    Forms of inclusion in the vertical chain and the governance of the
        co-operatives   
    Vertical and horizontal connections of AVIUM and AVIUM 2000
    General characteristics of the co-op members: inclusion
        conditions and motives   
    Specific characteristics of the farmers: two clusters of future
        anticipation   
    Cost and income factors of the co-operative membership   
Conclusions and recommendations   
    Sustainability and uniqueness   
    SWOT analysis and the possibilities of developments, up-scaling
        and replication   
References   

5. TOMATO SMALL-SCALE PRODUCERS IN ASTRAKHAN REGION OF RUSSIA   
Background – The macro and meso context   
    Smallholders – the major vegetable producers in Russia   
    Russia’s tomato food chain   
        Production and imports       
        Wholesale sector   
        Packing industry   
        Quality assurance   
        Consumption   
        Prices   
    Problem statement   
        State policy of supporting smallholder producers   
    Ground for selection of Astrakhan region   
Methods       
Results           
    The supply chain and its segments   
        Producers   
        Intermediates   
        Consumers   
    Innovation   
    Forms and costs/benefits of inclusion   
    The potential for up-scaling /replication   
Conclusions and recommendations   
References   
Annexes

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